.. Causes, consequences and clinical implications of alcohol-related brain shrinkage Previous studies have demonstrated that the brains of alcoholics are smaller, lighter and shrunken in comparison with nonalcoholic brains. At the October 2004 Congress for the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism in Mannheim Symposium speakers, Germany reviewed what’s known about the complexities, consequences and medical implications of alcohol-related human brain shrinkage. Proceedings are released in the June issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Study. The outer level of brain, also known as the cerebral cortex or gray matter, controls most complex mental activities, explained Clive Harper, symposium organizer and professor of neuropathology at the University of Sydney and Royal Prince Alfred Hospital.They are starting with D-cycloserine, a drug Emory researchers have shown enhances behavioral therapy for phobias and also promotes set bonding among prairie voles. Giving female voles D-cycloserine, which can be thought to facilitate memory space and learning, can encourage them to bond with a new male quicker than usual. The total results are published online and will appear in a future problem of Biological Psychiatry. The prairie vole model offers enabled us to understand about complicated neural pathways in interpersonal areas of the brain, says senior writer Larry Young, PhD. We believe these insights will be useful in identifying medications that enhance interpersonal cognition and learning.